Because most patients with diabetic retinopathy remain asymptomatic in the early stages of the disease, eye examinations to identify patients at risk for vision loss are an important preventative measure. According to the ADA, patients should have a comprehensive eye examination at the time of diagnosis. If no evidence of retinopathy is observed on fundoscopic examination and hemoglobin A1c is well controlled, screening examinations may be performed every 1-2 years. When nonproliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy is present, examinations should be performed more frequently.
The International Working Group on Diabetic Foot classification recommends diabetic foot screening every 3-6 months in patients with type 2 diabetes and peripheral neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, and/or foot deformities. An annual foot exam is recommended in patients without peripheral neuropathy. The gold standard for diagnosing diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a nerve conduction studies.
Diabetic kidney disease is diagnosed by the presence of albuminuria and/or reduced GFR. Screening for albuminuria should be performed with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio in a random spot urine collection at the time; albuminuria is defined as ≥ 30 mg/g Cr. Testing kidney function in patients with type 2 diabetes is recommended at the time of diagnosis and annually thereafter.
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Cite this: Anne L. Peters. Fast Five Quiz: Type 2 Diabetes Management - Medscape - Apr 27, 2022.