Low fluid intake (often in association with biochemical abnormalities in urine composition) with subsequent low volume of urine production can lead to high concentrations of stone-forming solutes in the urine. This is an important, if not the most important, environmental factor in kidney stone formation. The exact nature of the tubular damage or dysfunction that leads to stone formation has not been characterized.
The four main chemical types of renal calculi, which together are associated with more than 20 underlying etiologies, are:
Struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) stones
Uric acid stones
Numerous medications or their metabolites can precipitate in urine, causing stone formation. These include the following:
Silicate (overuse of antacids containing magnesium silicate)
Sulfa drugs, including sulfasalazine, sulfadiazine, acetylsulfamethoxazole, acetylsulfisoxazole, and acetylsulfaguanidine
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Cite this: Vecihi Batuman. Fast Five Quiz: Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi) - Medscape - May 12, 2021.