Fast Five Quiz: Lyme Disease Practice Essentials

Herbert S. Diamond, MD

Disclosures

February 25, 2021

Stage 2 Lyme disease usually develops 3-10 weeks after inoculation. Systemic manifestations may include fever and malaise. One or more organ systems become involved as hematologic or lymphatic spread disseminates spirochetes to distant sites. Musculoskeletal and neurologic symptoms are the most common; less common are symptoms from cardiac disturbances, such as dizziness, syncope, dyspnea, chest pain, and palpitations.

In patients with cutaneous involvement, multiple erythema migrans lesions are present. These are relatively small erythematous macules (1-5 cm) that are often oval. Unlike primary single erythema migrans rash, these lesions can be evanescent and do not show the typical expansion over days.

Ophthalmic manifestations vary by disease stage. In stage 1 Lyme disease, the ocular manifestations are conjunctivitis and photophobia. These are mild and transient, and ophthalmologists usually need not be consulted.

Significant ophthalmic complications may appear during stage 2 Lyme disease. Blurred vision can be noted during stage 2, secondary to papilledema, optic atrophy, optic or retrobulbar neuritis, or pseudotumor cerebri. Optic nerve disease may be unilateral or bilateral, and solitary or associated with other neurologic or neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations.

Read more about stage 2 Lyme disease.

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