Fast Five Quiz: Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1 Signs and Symptoms

Bradley Schwartz, DO


February 25, 2021

There are three types of primary hyperoxaluria (PH), a rare genetic metabolic disorder: PH1, PH2 and PH3. PH type 1 (PH1) is the most common. PH1 results from a deficiency of the liver peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), which catalyzes the conversion of glyoxylate to glycine. The absence of AGT activity causes glyoxylate to be converted to oxalate, which forms insoluble calcium oxalate crystals.

Signs and symptoms of this disorder are variable, but patients are at risk for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and increased morbidity and mortality. At present, combined liver and renal transplant is the only curative option. Early identification and management are essential to improve prognosis in PH1.

How familiar are you with the signs and symptoms of PH1? Test your knowledge with this quick quiz.


Comments on Medscape are moderated and should be professional in tone and on topic. You must declare any conflicts of interest related to your comments and responses. Please see our Commenting Guide for further information. We reserve the right to remove posts at our sole discretion.