Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an extremely disabling connective tissue disorder characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification (HO). In most cases, the disease is the result of a spontaneous new mutation, but autosomal dominant cases have also been reported. The hallmark of FOP is malformation of the great toes.
FOP is ultra-rare, with a worldwide prevalence of 0.6-1.3 per million individuals. The disorder generally announces itself in early infancy with episodes of soft-tissue swelling, but in utero involvement has also been observed. FOP usually develops after trauma; flare-ups of soft-tissue swelling may be prompted by injury, intramuscular injections, viral infection, or falls. These episodes alter skeletal muscle, tendons, ligaments, fascia, and aponeuroses into heterotopic bone.
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Cite this: Dirk M. Elston. Fast Five Quiz: Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva - Medscape - Jan 14, 2021.