Enteral feedings supplemented with arginine and omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to be beneficial (decreased infectious complications, hospital days, and duration of mechanical ventilation) in critically ill patients. The ability to feed a patient and the route of nutrition vary based on the etiology of SIRS.
Studies of TNF-alpha and IL-1 receptor antagonists, antibradykinin, platelet-activating factor receptor antagonists, and anticoagulants (antithrombin III) have not shown statistically significant benefits in SIRS. Variable results for sepsis and septic shock have been reported. These medications have no role in treating patients who meet criteria for SIRS only.
Steroids for sepsis and septic shock have been extensively studied, but no recommendations specific to SIRS are widely recognized. Low-dose steroids should be considered on an individual basis for patients with refractory hypotension (ie, septic shock) despite adequate fluid resuscitation and appropriate vasopressor administration.
For more on the treatment of SIRS, read here.
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Cite this: Michael R. Pinksy. Fast Five Quiz: How Much Do You Know About Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome? - Medscape - Feb 12, 2018.