Fast Five Quiz: How Much Do You Know About HIV?

Michael Stuart Bronze, MD; Nicholas J. Bennett, MBBCh, PhD, MA(Cantab)

Disclosures

May 10, 2021

Sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia may be found in people with HIV who acquired their HIV infection via sexual transmission or who are not practicing safe sex, but they are not considered opportunistic infections.

When an individual's immune system is damaged to the degree that significant opportunistic infections begin to develop, the person is considered to have AIDS. The general frequency of these infections and conditions varies from rare to common, but all are uncommon or mild in immunocompetent persons. Opportunistic infections and conditions include:

  • Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs

  • Candidiasis, esophageal

  • Cervical cancer, invasive

  • Coccidioidomycosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary

  • Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary

  • Cryptosporidiosis, chronic intestinal (duration > 1 month)

  • Cytomegalovirus disease (other than liver, spleen, or nodes)

  • Cytomegalovirus retinitis (with vision loss)

  • Encephalopathy, HIV-related

  • Herpes simplex: chronic ulcer or ulcers (duration > 1 month) or bronchitis, pneumonitis, or esophagitis

  • Histoplasmosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary

  • Isosporiasis, chronic intestinal (duration > 1 month)

  • Kaposi sarcoma

  • Lymphoma, Burkitt (or equivalent term)

  • Lymphoma, immunoblastic (or equivalent term)

  • Lymphoma, primary, of the brain

  • Mycobacterium avium complex or Mycobacterium kansasii infection, disseminated or extrapulmonary

  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, any site (pulmonary or extrapulmonary)

  • Mycobacterium infection with other species or unidentified species, disseminated or extrapulmonary

  • Pneumocystis pneumonia

  • Pneumonia, recurrent

  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

  • Salmonella septicemia, recurrent

  • Toxoplasmosis of the brain

  • Wasting syndrome due to HIV infection

Learn more about the pathophysiology of HIV and its relationship to opportunistic conditions.

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