Fast Five Quiz: How Well Do You Know the Risk Factors and Treatment Indications for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

Romesh Khardori, MD, PhD


June 03, 2020

The consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the World Health Organization guidelines continue to support the use of metformin as a first-line treatment for type 2 DM. Metformin as a monotherapy has worldwide accessibility and low cost, and is associated with high efficacy and minimal hypoglycemic risk, along with the potential for weight loss.

Along with albiglutide, exenatide, and liraglutide, dulaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist indicated as adjunct therapy to exercise and diet for patients with type 2 DM.

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), including pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, are insulin sensitizers given as monotherapy or as combination therapy with other antidiabetic drugs. TZDs may slow disease progression of type 2 DM.

Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are selective sodium-glucose transporter–2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors given as monotherapy or add-on therapy with other antidiabetic drugs.

On average, monotherapy with many of the oral diabetes drugs (alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, meglitinides, sulfonylureas, TZDs) reduce A1c levels by 1 percentage point, and two-drug combination therapies reduce A1c by 1 additional percentage point more than monotherapy.

Learn more about treatment options for type 2 DM.


Comments on Medscape are moderated and should be professional in tone and on topic. You must declare any conflicts of interest related to your comments and responses. Please see our Commenting Guide for further information. We reserve the right to remove posts at our sole discretion.