Patient characteristics associated with greater treatment effects of surgery include baseline Oswestry Disability Index ≤ 56, not smoking, neuroforaminal stenosis, predominant leg pain, not lifting at work, and the presence of a neurologic deficit. In general, with the exception of smokers, patients who meet strict inclusion criteria improve more with surgery than with other treatments. Patients with spinal stenosis should consider smoking cessation before surgery.
For more information on the treatment of spinal stenosis, read here.
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