desflurane (Rx)

Brand and Other Names:Suprane
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Dosing & Uses

AdultPediatric

Dosage Forms & Strengths

inhalation solution

  • 240mL (100%)

General Anesthesia

Induction: Initial 3% inhaled, increase by 0.5-1% increments q2-3Breaths

Maintenance: 2.5-8.5% with or without nitrous oxide

Dosage Forms & Strengths

inhalation solution

  • 240mL (100%)

General Anesthesia Maintenance

Indicated for maintenance of anesthesia in infants and children who are tracheally intubated following induction with agents other than desflurane

Maintenance: 5.2-10% with or without nitrous oxide

Dosing Considerations

Contraindicated for induction in pediatric patients

Not indicated for maintenance of anesthesia in nonintubated children due to an increased incidence of moderate to severe respiratory adverse reactions, including coughing, laryngospasm and secretions

Concentration of desflurane used is age dependent

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Interactions

Interaction Checker

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            Contraindicated (1)

            • dronedarone

              desflurane and dronedarone both increase QTc interval. Contraindicated.

            Serious - Use Alternative (164)

            • alfuzosin

              desflurane and alfuzosin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • amiodarone

              desflurane and amiodarone both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • amisulpride

              desflurane and amisulpride both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • anagrelide

              desflurane and anagrelide both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • aripiprazole

              desflurane and aripiprazole both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • arsenic trioxide

              desflurane and arsenic trioxide both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • artemether

              desflurane and artemether both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • artemether/lumefantrine

              desflurane and artemether/lumefantrine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • asenapine

              desflurane and asenapine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • atomoxetine

              desflurane and atomoxetine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • azithromycin

              desflurane and azithromycin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • bedaquiline

              desflurane and bedaquiline both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • benzhydrocodone/acetaminophen

              benzhydrocodone/acetaminophen, desflurane. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death may result if coadministered. Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs in patients for whom other treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Monitor closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Increased risk of hypotension if ability to maintain blood pressure has been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (eg, phenothiazines or general anesthetics).

            • benzphetamine

              desflurane increases toxicity of benzphetamine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • buprenorphine

              desflurane and buprenorphine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • calcium/magnesium/potassium/sodium oxybates

              desflurane, calcium/magnesium/potassium/sodium oxybates. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death may result if coadministered. Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs in patients for whom other treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Monitor closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation.

            • ceritinib

              desflurane and ceritinib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • chloroquine

              desflurane and chloroquine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • chlorpromazine

              desflurane and chlorpromazine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • ciprofloxacin

              desflurane and ciprofloxacin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • citalopram

              desflurane and citalopram both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • clarithromycin

              desflurane and clarithromycin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • clozapine

              desflurane and clozapine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • crizotinib

              desflurane and crizotinib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • dasatinib

              desflurane and dasatinib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • degarelix

              desflurane and degarelix both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • deutetrabenazine

              desflurane and deutetrabenazine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • dexfenfluramine

              desflurane increases toxicity of dexfenfluramine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • dexmethylphenidate

              desflurane increases toxicity of dexmethylphenidate by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • dextroamphetamine

              desflurane increases toxicity of dextroamphetamine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • diethylpropion

              desflurane increases toxicity of diethylpropion by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • disopyramide

              desflurane and disopyramide both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • dobutamine

              desflurane increases toxicity of dobutamine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • dofetilide

              desflurane and dofetilide both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • dolasetron

              desflurane and dolasetron both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • dopamine

              desflurane increases toxicity of dopamine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • doxapram

              doxapram, desflurane. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Contraindicated. May result in V tach or V fib. Delay doxapram until anesthesia has been excreted.

            • droperidol

              desflurane and droperidol both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • eliglustat

              desflurane and eliglustat both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • encorafenib

              desflurane and encorafenib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • entrectinib

              desflurane and entrectinib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • ephedrine

              desflurane increases toxicity of ephedrine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • epinephrine

              desflurane increases toxicity of epinephrine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

              desflurane increases levels of epinephrine by decreasing metabolism. Contraindicated.

            • epinephrine racemic

              desflurane increases levels of epinephrine racemic by decreasing metabolism. Contraindicated.

            • eribulin

              desflurane and eribulin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • erythromycin base

              desflurane and erythromycin base both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • erythromycin ethylsuccinate

              desflurane and erythromycin ethylsuccinate both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • erythromycin lactobionate

              desflurane and erythromycin lactobionate both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • erythromycin stearate

              desflurane and erythromycin stearate both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • escitalopram

              desflurane and escitalopram both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • fenfluramine

              desflurane increases toxicity of fenfluramine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • fentanyl

              fentanyl, desflurane. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration with other CNS depressants, such as skeletal muscle relaxants, may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, coma, and/or death. Consider dose reduction of either or both agents to avoid serious adverse effects. Monitor for hypotension, respiratory depression, and profound sedation.

            • fentanyl intranasal

              fentanyl intranasal, desflurane. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration with other CNS depressants, such as skeletal muscle relaxants, may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, coma, and/or death. Consider dose reduction of either or both agents to avoid serious adverse effects. Monitor for hypotension, respiratory depression, and profound sedation.

            • fentanyl transdermal

              fentanyl transdermal, desflurane. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration with other CNS depressants, such as skeletal muscle relaxants, may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, coma, and/or death. Consider dose reduction of either or both agents to avoid serious adverse effects. Monitor for hypotension, respiratory depression, and profound sedation.

            • fentanyl transmucosal

              fentanyl transmucosal, desflurane. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration with other CNS depressants, such as skeletal muscle relaxants, may cause respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, coma, and/or death. Consider dose reduction of either or both agents to avoid serious adverse effects. Monitor for hypotension, respiratory depression, and profound sedation.

            • fexinidazole

              fexinidazole and desflurane both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Avoid coadministration of fexinidazole with drugs known to block potassium channels or prolong QT interval.

            • flecainide

              desflurane and flecainide both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • fluconazole

              desflurane and fluconazole both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • fluoxetine

              desflurane and fluoxetine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • fluvoxamine

              desflurane and fluvoxamine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • foscarnet

              desflurane and foscarnet both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • gemifloxacin

              desflurane and gemifloxacin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • gemtuzumab

              desflurane and gemtuzumab both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • gilteritinib

              desflurane and gilteritinib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • glasdegib

              desflurane and glasdegib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • goserelin

              desflurane and goserelin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • granisetron

              desflurane and granisetron both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • haloperidol

              desflurane and haloperidol both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • histrelin

              desflurane and histrelin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • hydrocodone

              hydrocodone, desflurane. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death may result if coadministered. Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs in patients for whom other treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Monitor closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Increased risk of hypotension if ability to maintain blood pressure has been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (eg, phenothiazines or general anesthetics).

            • hydroxychloroquine sulfate

              desflurane and hydroxychloroquine sulfate both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • hydroxyzine

              desflurane and hydroxyzine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • ibutilide

              desflurane and ibutilide both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • iloperidone

              desflurane and iloperidone both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • inotuzumab

              desflurane and inotuzumab both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • isocarboxazid

              isocarboxazid increases levels of desflurane by pharmacodynamic synergism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • isoproterenol

              desflurane increases toxicity of isoproterenol by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • itraconazole

              desflurane and itraconazole both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • ivosidenib

              desflurane and ivosidenib both decrease QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • lapatinib

              desflurane and lapatinib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • lefamulin

              lefamulin and desflurane both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • lenvatinib

              desflurane and lenvatinib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • leuprolide

              desflurane and leuprolide both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • levofloxacin

              desflurane and levofloxacin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • lisdexamfetamine

              desflurane increases toxicity of lisdexamfetamine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • lithium

              desflurane and lithium both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • lofexidine

              desflurane and lofexidine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • loperamide

              desflurane and loperamide both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • lopinavir

              desflurane and lopinavir both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • macimorelin

              desflurane and macimorelin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • maprotiline

              desflurane and maprotiline both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • mefloquine

              mefloquine increases toxicity of desflurane by QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Mefloquine may enhance the QTc prolonging effect of high risk QTc prolonging agents.

            • methamphetamine

              desflurane increases toxicity of methamphetamine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • methylphenidate

              desflurane increases toxicity of methylphenidate by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of acute hypertensive episode.

            • metoclopramide intranasal

              desflurane, metoclopramide intranasal. Either increases effects of the other by Other (see comment). Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Comment: Avoid use of metoclopramide intranasal or interacting drug, depending on importance of drug to patient.

            • midodrine

              desflurane increases toxicity of midodrine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • midostaurin

              desflurane and midostaurin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • mifepristone

              desflurane and mifepristone both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • mirtazapine

              desflurane and mirtazapine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • mobocertinib

              desflurane and mobocertinib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • moxifloxacin

              desflurane and moxifloxacin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • nilotinib

              desflurane and nilotinib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • norepinephrine

              desflurane increases toxicity of norepinephrine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

              desflurane increases levels of norepinephrine by decreasing metabolism. Contraindicated.

            • octreotide

              desflurane and octreotide both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • ofloxacin

              desflurane and ofloxacin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • olanzapine

              desflurane and olanzapine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Limited data, including some case reports, suggest that olanzapine may be associated with a significant prolongation of the QTc interval in rare instances

            • ondansetron

              desflurane and ondansetron both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • osimertinib

              desflurane and osimertinib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • oxaliplatin

              desflurane and oxaliplatin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • ozanimod

              desflurane and ozanimod both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • paliperidone

              desflurane and paliperidone both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • panobinostat

              desflurane and panobinostat both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • pasireotide

              desflurane and pasireotide both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • pazopanib

              desflurane and pazopanib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • pentamidine

              desflurane and pentamidine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • phendimetrazine

              desflurane increases toxicity of phendimetrazine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • phenelzine

              phenelzine increases levels of desflurane by pharmacodynamic synergism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • phentermine

              desflurane increases toxicity of phentermine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • phenylephrine

              desflurane increases toxicity of phenylephrine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

              desflurane increases levels of phenylephrine by decreasing metabolism. Contraindicated.

            • phenylephrine PO

              desflurane increases levels of phenylephrine PO by decreasing metabolism. Contraindicated.

              desflurane increases toxicity of phenylephrine PO by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • pimavanserin

              desflurane and pimavanserin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • pitolisant

              desflurane and pitolisant both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • ponesimod

              desflurane and ponesimod both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • posaconazole

              desflurane and posaconazole both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • primaquine

              desflurane and primaquine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • procainamide

              desflurane and procainamide both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • propafenone

              desflurane and propafenone both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • propylhexedrine

              desflurane increases toxicity of propylhexedrine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • quetiapine

              desflurane and quetiapine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • quinine

              desflurane and quinine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • ranolazine

              desflurane and ranolazine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • rasagiline

              rasagiline increases levels of desflurane by pharmacodynamic synergism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • ribociclib

              desflurane and ribociclib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • rilpivirine

              desflurane and rilpivirine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • risperidone

              desflurane and risperidone both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • romidepsin

              desflurane and romidepsin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • saquinavir

              desflurane and saquinavir both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • selegiline

              selegiline increases levels of desflurane by pharmacodynamic synergism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • selpercatinib

              desflurane and selpercatinib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • sertraline

              desflurane and sertraline both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • siponimod

              desflurane and siponimod both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • sodium oxybate

              desflurane, sodium oxybate. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death may result if coadministered. Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs in patients for whom other treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Monitor closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation.

            • solifenacin

              desflurane and solifenacin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • sorafenib

              desflurane and sorafenib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • sotalol

              desflurane and sotalol both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • sufentanil SL

              sufentanil SL, desflurane. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Coadministration may result in hypotension, profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs in patients for whom other treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Monitor closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation.

            • sunitinib

              desflurane and sunitinib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • tacrolimus

              desflurane and tacrolimus both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • telavancin

              desflurane and telavancin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • tetrabenazine

              desflurane and tetrabenazine both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • toremifene

              desflurane and toremifene both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • tranylcypromine

              tranylcypromine increases levels of desflurane by pharmacodynamic synergism. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • trazodone

              desflurane and trazodone both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • triclabendazole

              desflurane and triclabendazole both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • triptorelin

              desflurane and triptorelin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • vandetanib

              desflurane and vandetanib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • vardenafil

              desflurane and vardenafil both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • vemurafenib

              desflurane and vemurafenib both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • venlafaxine

              desflurane and venlafaxine both decrease QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • voclosporin

              desflurane and voclosporin both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • voriconazole

              desflurane and voriconazole both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • vorinostat

              desflurane and vorinostat both increase QTc interval. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug.

            • xylometazoline

              desflurane increases toxicity of xylometazoline by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            • yohimbine

              desflurane increases toxicity of yohimbine by Mechanism: unknown. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Risk of V tach, HTN.

            Monitor Closely (138)

            • acebutolol

              desflurane, acebutolol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • alfentanil

              desflurane and alfentanil both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • alprazolam

              desflurane and alprazolam both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • amitriptyline

              desflurane and amitriptyline both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

              desflurane and amitriptyline both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • amoxapine

              desflurane and amoxapine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • apomorphine

              desflurane and apomorphine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • atenolol

              desflurane, atenolol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • baclofen

              desflurane and baclofen both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • belladonna and opium

              desflurane and belladonna and opium both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • benperidol

              desflurane and benperidol both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • betaxolol

              desflurane, betaxolol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • bisoprolol

              desflurane, bisoprolol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • brexanolone

              brexanolone, desflurane. Either increases toxicity of the other by sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • brompheniramine

              desflurane and brompheniramine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • buprenorphine

              desflurane and buprenorphine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • buprenorphine buccal

              desflurane and buprenorphine buccal both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • buprenorphine, long-acting injection

              desflurane increases toxicity of buprenorphine, long-acting injection by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Coadministration of buprenorphine and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants increases risk of adverse reactions including overdose, respiratory depression, and death. Cessation of benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants is preferred in most cases. In some cases, monitoring at a higher level of care for tapering CNS depressants may be appropriate. In others, gradually tapering a patient off of a prescribed benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant or decreasing to the lowest effective dose may be appropriate.

            • butorphanol

              desflurane and butorphanol both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • carbinoxamine

              desflurane and carbinoxamine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • carvedilol

              desflurane, carvedilol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • celiprolol

              desflurane, celiprolol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • cenobamate

              cenobamate, desflurane. Either increases effects of the other by sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • chlordiazepoxide

              desflurane and chlordiazepoxide both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • chlorpheniramine

              desflurane and chlorpheniramine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • chlorpromazine

              desflurane and chlorpromazine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cinnarizine

              desflurane and cinnarizine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cisapride

              desflurane and cisapride both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • clemastine

              desflurane and clemastine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • clomipramine

              desflurane and clomipramine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

              desflurane and clomipramine both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • clonazepam

              desflurane and clonazepam both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • clorazepate

              desflurane and clorazepate both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • clozapine

              desflurane and clozapine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • codeine

              desflurane and codeine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • cyclizine

              desflurane and cyclizine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • cyproheptadine

              desflurane and cyproheptadine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • desipramine

              desflurane and desipramine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

              desflurane and desipramine both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • dexchlorpheniramine

              desflurane and dexchlorpheniramine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • dexfenfluramine

              desflurane increases and dexfenfluramine decreases sedation. Effect of interaction is not clear, use caution. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • dexmedetomidine

              desflurane and dexmedetomidine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • dextromoramide

              desflurane and dextromoramide both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • diamorphine

              desflurane and diamorphine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • diazepam

              desflurane and diazepam both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • dichlorphenamide

              dichlorphenamide and desflurane both decrease serum potassium. Use Caution/Monitor.

              dichlorphenamide, desflurane. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Both drugs can cause metabolic acidosis.

            • dimenhydrinate

              desflurane and dimenhydrinate both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • diphenhydramine

              desflurane and diphenhydramine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • dipipanone

              desflurane and dipipanone both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • dopexamine

              desflurane increases and dopexamine decreases sedation. Effect of interaction is not clear, use caution. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • dosulepin

              desflurane and dosulepin both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • doxepin

              desflurane and doxepin both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

              desflurane and doxepin both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • droperidol

              desflurane and droperidol both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • esketamine intranasal

              esketamine intranasal, desflurane. Either increases toxicity of the other by sedation. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely.

            • esmolol

              desflurane, esmolol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • estazolam

              desflurane and estazolam both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • etomidate

              desflurane and etomidate both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • fenfluramine

              desflurane increases and fenfluramine decreases sedation. Effect of interaction is not clear, use caution. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • fluphenazine

              desflurane and fluphenazine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

              desflurane and fluphenazine both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • flurazepam

              desflurane and flurazepam both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • fostemsavir

              desflurane and fostemsavir both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor. QTc prolongation reported with higher than recommended doses of fostemsavir.

            • haloperidol

              desflurane and haloperidol both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • hydromorphone

              desflurane and hydromorphone both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • hydroxyzine

              desflurane and hydroxyzine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • iloperidone

              desflurane and iloperidone both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • imipramine

              desflurane and imipramine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

              desflurane and imipramine both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ketamine

              desflurane and ketamine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ketotifen, ophthalmic

              desflurane and ketotifen, ophthalmic both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • labetalol

              desflurane, labetalol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • lasmiditan

              lasmiditan, desflurane. Either increases effects of the other by sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Coadministration of lasmiditan and other CNS depressant drugs, including alcohol have not been evaluated in clinical studies. Lasmiditan may cause sedation, as well as other cognitive and/or neuropsychiatric adverse reactions.

            • lemborexant

              lemborexant, desflurane. Either increases effects of the other by sedation. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Dosage adjustment may be necessary if lemborexant is coadministered with other CNS depressants because of potentially additive effects.

            • levalbuterol

              desflurane increases and levalbuterol decreases sedation. Effect of interaction is not clear, use caution. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • levorphanol

              desflurane and levorphanol both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • linezolid

              linezolid increases levels of desflurane by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • lofepramine

              desflurane and lofepramine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • lofexidine

              desflurane and lofexidine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • loprazolam

              desflurane and loprazolam both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • lorazepam

              desflurane and lorazepam both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • lormetazepam

              desflurane and lormetazepam both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • loxapine

              desflurane and loxapine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • loxapine inhaled

              desflurane and loxapine inhaled both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • maprotiline

              desflurane and maprotiline both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • meperidine

              desflurane and meperidine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • methadone

              desflurane and methadone both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • metoprolol

              desflurane, metoprolol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • midazolam

              desflurane and midazolam both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • midazolam intranasal

              midazolam intranasal, desflurane. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Concomitant use of barbiturates, alcohol, or other CNS depressants may increase the risk of hypoventilation, airway obstruction, desaturation, or apnea and may contribute to profound and/or prolonged drug effect.

            • mirtazapine

              desflurane and mirtazapine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • morphine

              desflurane and morphine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • moxonidine

              desflurane and moxonidine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • nabilone

              desflurane and nabilone both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • nadolol

              desflurane, nadolol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • nalbuphine

              desflurane and nalbuphine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • nebivolol

              desflurane, nebivolol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • nortriptyline

              desflurane and nortriptyline both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

              desflurane and nortriptyline both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • oliceridine

              oliceridine, desflurane. Either increases toxicity of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely. Profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death may result if coadministered. Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs in patients for whom other treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Monitor closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation. Increased risk of hypotension if ability to maintain blood pressure has been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (eg, phenothiazines or general anesthetics).

            • opium tincture

              desflurane and opium tincture both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • osilodrostat

              osilodrostat and desflurane both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • oxazepam

              desflurane and oxazepam both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • oxycodone

              desflurane and oxycodone both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • oxymorphone

              desflurane and oxymorphone both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • paliperidone

              desflurane and paliperidone both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • papaveretum

              desflurane and papaveretum both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • papaverine

              desflurane and papaverine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • penbutolol

              desflurane, penbutolol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • pentazocine

              desflurane and pentazocine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • perphenazine

              desflurane and perphenazine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

              desflurane and perphenazine both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • phenylephrine PO

              desflurane increases and phenylephrine PO decreases sedation. Effect of interaction is not clear, use caution. Use Caution/Monitor. .

            • pholcodine

              desflurane and pholcodine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • pimozide

              desflurane and pimozide both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • pindolol

              desflurane, pindolol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • procarbazine

              procarbazine increases levels of desflurane by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • prochlorperazine

              desflurane and prochlorperazine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

              desflurane and prochlorperazine both decrease QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • promethazine

              desflurane and promethazine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

              desflurane and promethazine both decrease QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • propofol

              desflurane and propofol both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • propranolol

              desflurane, propranolol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • protriptyline

              desflurane and protriptyline both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

              desflurane and protriptyline both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • quazepam

              desflurane and quazepam both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • quetiapine

              desflurane and quetiapine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • quinidine

              desflurane and quinidine both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • risperidone

              desflurane and risperidone both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • selegiline transdermal

              selegiline transdermal increases levels of desflurane by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • sevoflurane

              desflurane and sevoflurane both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • sotalol

              desflurane, sotalol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • stiripentol

              stiripentol, desflurane. Either increases effects of the other by sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Concomitant use stiripentol with other CNS depressants, including alcohol, may increase the risk of sedation and somnolence.

            • sufentanil

              desflurane and sufentanil both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • tapentadol

              desflurane and tapentadol both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • temazepam

              desflurane and temazepam both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • thioridazine

              desflurane and thioridazine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • thiothixene

              desflurane and thiothixene both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • timolol

              desflurane, timolol. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Use Caution/Monitor. Risk of hypotension.

            • topiramate

              desflurane and topiramate both increase sedation. Modify Therapy/Monitor Closely.

            • tramadol

              desflurane and tramadol both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor. Opioids may decrease MAC requirements, less inhalation anesthetic may be required.

            • trazodone

              desflurane and trazodone both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • triazolam

              desflurane and triazolam both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • triclofos

              desflurane and triclofos both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • trifluoperazine

              desflurane and trifluoperazine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

              desflurane and trifluoperazine both decrease QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • trimipramine

              desflurane and trimipramine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

              desflurane and trimipramine both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • triprolidine

              desflurane and triprolidine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • ziprasidone

              desflurane and ziprasidone both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.

            • zotepine

              desflurane and zotepine both increase sedation. Use Caution/Monitor.

            Minor (15)

            • amitriptyline

              desflurane, amitriptyline. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Risk of arrhythmias or hypotension.

            • amoxapine

              desflurane, amoxapine. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Risk of arrhythmias or hypotension.

            • benazepril

              desflurane, benazepril. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. May increase risk of hypotension.

            • captopril

              desflurane, captopril. Either increases effects of the other by pharmacodynamic synergism. Minor/Significance Unknown. May increase risk of hypotension.

            • clomipramine

              desflurane, clomipramine. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Risk of arrhythmias or hypotension.

            • desipramine

              desflurane, desipramine. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Risk of arrhythmias or hypotension.

            • dosulepin

              desflurane, dosulepin. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Risk of arrhythmias or hypotension.

            • doxepin

              desflurane, doxepin. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Risk of arrhythmias or hypotension.

            • imipramine

              desflurane, imipramine. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Risk of arrhythmias or hypotension.

            • lofepramine

              desflurane, lofepramine. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Risk of arrhythmias or hypotension.

            • maprotiline

              desflurane, maprotiline. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Risk of arrhythmias or hypotension.

            • nortriptyline

              desflurane, nortriptyline. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Risk of arrhythmias or hypotension.

            • protriptyline

              desflurane, protriptyline. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Risk of arrhythmias or hypotension.

            • trazodone

              desflurane, trazodone. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Risk of arrhythmias or hypotension.

            • trimipramine

              desflurane, trimipramine. Mechanism: unspecified interaction mechanism. Minor/Significance Unknown. Risk of arrhythmias or hypotension.

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            Adverse Effects

            >10%

            Cough (3% to 34% adult induction; 26% pediatric maintenance and 72% pediatric induction )

            Apnea (3% to 15% )

            Interrupted breathing (30% adult induction; 3% pediatric maintenance and 68% pediatric induction )

            Laryngeal spasm (3% to 10% adult induction; 13% pediatric maintenance and 50% pediatric induction )

            Nausea (27% )

            Desaturation of blood (3% to 10% adult induction; 2% pediatric maintenance and 26% pediatric induction )

            Vomiting (16% )

            Cardiovascular: Alteration in heart rate (greater than 1% ); hypotension (8% geriatric patients)

            1-10%

            Hypotension (8% geriatric patients)

            Alteration in heart rate (>1% )

            Bradyarrhythmia (>1% )

            Heart failure, Hypertension (>1% )

            Malignant hypertension, Shock, Sinus arrhythmia (>1% )

            Tachycardia (>1% )

            Excessive salivation (>1% )

            Headache (>1% )

            Delirium (>1%)

            Pharyngitis (>1% )

            <1%

            Cardiac arrest, Cardiac dysrhythmia

            Torsades de pointes

            Hyperkalemia, Perioperative (rare )

            Malignant hyperthermia

            Pancreatitis, acute

            Hepatic necrosis, Hepatitis, Liver failure

            Rhabdomyolysis

            Seizure

            Nephrotoxicity

            Respiratory failure

            Complication of anesthesia, During induction

            Postmarketing reports

            Atrial fibrillation

            Post-operative agitation in children

            Cardiac arrest, QTc prolongation

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            Warnings

            Contraindications

            Sensitivity to halogenated agents

            Genetic susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

            Patients in whom general anesthesia is contraindicated

            Induction of anesthesia in pediatric patients

            History of moderate to severe hepatic dysfunction following anesthesia with desflurane or other halogenated agents

            Cautions

            Volatile liquid; use appropriate vaporizer for inhalation

            Not approved for maintenance of anesthesia in nonintubated children due to an increased incidence of respiratory adverse reactions, including coughing (26%), laryngospasm (13%), and secretions (12%)

            Decrease in hepatic and renal blood flow reported

            Risk of hyperkalemia increased in pediatric patients with underlying neuromuscular disease (eg, Duchenne muscular dystrophy)

            Increase in intracranial pressure reported with use

            Emergence from anesthesia in children may evoke a brief state of agitation that may hinder cooperation

            Malignant hyperthermia may occur in susceptible individuals; fatal outcomes reported

            Should not be used as sole agent of induction in patients with CAD, heart failure, or patients where increase in heart rate or BP are undesirable

            Children, particularly if 6 years old or younger, under an anesthetic maintenance of desflurane delivered via laryngeal mask airway (LMA™ mask) are at increased risk for adverse respiratory reactions, including coughing and laryngospasm, especially with removal of the laryngeal mask airway under deep anesthesia; closely monitor these patients for signs and symptoms associated with laryngospasm and treat accordingly

            When used for maintenance of anesthesia in children with asthma or history of recent upper airway infection, there is increased risk for airway narrowing and increases in airway resistance; closely monitor these patients for signs and symptoms associated with airway narrowing and treat accordingly

            QTc prolongation, associated with torsade de pointes, reported; carefully monitor cardiac rhythm when administering drug to susceptible patients (e.g., patients with congenital Long QT Syndrome or patients taking drugs that can prolong the QT interval)

            General anesthetics and sedation drugs in young children and pregnant women

            • Brain development
              • Prolonged or repeated exposure may result in negative effects on fetal or young children’s brain development
              • Caution with use during surgeries or procedures in children younger than 3 yr or in pregnant women during their third trimester
              • Assess the risk:benefit ratio in these populations, especially for prolonged procedures (ie, >3 hr) or multiple procedures
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            Pregnancy & Lactation

            Pregnancy

            There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women; in animal reproduction studies, embryo-fetal toxicity (reduced viable fetuses and/or increased post-implantation loss) was noted in pregnant rats and rabbits administered 1 MAC desflurane for 4 hours a day (4 MAC-hours/day) during organogenesis; there are no data on pregnancy exposures in primates corresponding to periods prior to the third trimester in humans

            Lactation

            It is not known whether drug is excreted in human milk; because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when administering therapy to a nursing woman

            Pregnancy Categories

            A: Generally acceptable. Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk.

            B: May be acceptable. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk.

            C: Use with caution if benefits outweigh risks. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done.

            D: Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Positive evidence of human fetal risk.

            X: Do not use in pregnancy. Risks involved outweigh potential benefits. Safer alternatives exist.

            NA: Information not available.

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            Pharmacology

            Mechanism of Action

            Volatile liquid inhalation anesthetic; may enhance inhibitory postsynaptic channel activity and may inhibit excitatory synaptic activity

            Pharmacokinetics

            Onset: 1-2 min

            Absorption: <0.02% (systemic)

            Metabolism: Liver (minimal)

            Elimination: Via the lungs (exhaled gases)

            Pharmacogenomics

            Increased incidence of malignant hyperthermia with use of volatile anesthetics or depolarizing neuromuscular blockers in patients with gene mutations in ryanodine receptor (RYR1) or calcium channel alpha (1S)- subunit gene (CACNA1S)

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            Images

            No images available for this drug.
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            Patient Handout

            Patient Education
            desflurane inhalation

            NO MONOGRAPH AVAILABLE AT THIS TIME

            USES: Consult your pharmacist.

            HOW TO USE: Consult your pharmacist.

            SIDE EFFECTS: Consult your pharmacist.In the US -Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

            PRECAUTIONS: Consult your pharmacist.

            DRUG INTERACTIONS: Consult your pharmacist.Keep a list of all your medications with you, and share the list with your doctor and pharmacist.

            OVERDOSE: If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing, call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

            NOTES: No monograph available at this time.

            MISSED DOSE: Consult your pharmacist.

            STORAGE: Consult your pharmacist.Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company for more details about how to safely discard your product.

            Information last revised July 2016. Copyright(c) 2021 First Databank, Inc.

            IMPORTANT: HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product. This information does not assure that this product is safe, effective, or appropriate for you. This information is not individual medical advice and does not substitute for the advice of your health care professional. Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

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            Formulary

            FormularyPatient Discounts

            Adding plans allows you to compare formulary status to other drugs in the same class.

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            Adding plans allows you to:

            • View the formulary and any restrictions for each plan.
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            • Compare formulary status to other drugs in the same class.
            • Access your plan list on any device – mobile or desktop.

            The above information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only. Individual plans may vary and formulary information changes. Contact the applicable plan provider for the most current information.

            Tier Description
            1 This drug is available at the lowest co-pay. Most commonly, these are generic drugs.
            2 This drug is available at a middle level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "preferred" (on formulary) brand drugs.
            3 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs.
            4 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty prescription products.
            5 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty prescription products.
            6 This drug is available at a higher level co-pay. Most commonly, these are "non-preferred" brand drugs or specialty prescription products.
            NC NOT COVERED – Drugs that are not covered by the plan.
            Code Definition
            PA Prior Authorization
            Drugs that require prior authorization. This restriction requires that specific clinical criteria be met prior to the approval of the prescription.
            QL Quantity Limits
            Drugs that have quantity limits associated with each prescription. This restriction typically limits the quantity of the drug that will be covered.
            ST Step Therapy
            Drugs that have step therapy associated with each prescription. This restriction typically requires that certain criteria be met prior to approval for the prescription.
            OR Other Restrictions
            Drugs that have restrictions other than prior authorization, quantity limits, and step therapy associated with each prescription.
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            Medscape prescription drug monographs are based on FDA-approved labeling information, unless otherwise noted, combined with additional data derived from primary medical literature.